[杂谈] 瞧瞧爱知Linimo 聊聊磁浮Why&How (36P)

  每一次交通运输的变革,都曾为时代按下快进的按钮。轨道交通经过一百多年发展,开始迈入磁浮时代。今天,完全拥有自主知识产权、国内首条、全球最长的中低速磁浮商业运营示范线――长沙磁浮快线已经安全稳定运行一年有余,规划建设的“伟人故里”长株潭、“世界遗产”张家界等磁浮示范项目已经呼之欲出!犹记得曾乘磁悬浮Linimo领略爱知世博的睿智,常回味国际磁浮协会IMB的有关文献,忍不住收集一批愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo(愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 リニモ)图片,同时配发一些国际磁浮协会IMB介绍,与各位博友共享!愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo全长8.9km,设站9个,最高运行速度100km/h,采用常電導吸引型磁気浮上式 (HSST) ,更多愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Linimo图文介绍,欢迎移步《[原创] 乘磁悬浮Linimo 领略爱知世博的睿智(10P)》。【本文相关文字及数据均系根据网络资料整理,仅供学习参考】

The International Maglev Board is an international non-profit organization. It is made up of internationally known transport scientists, engineers, experts as well as members of citizens' movements. The International Maglev Board does not in any way, shape or form. endorse any particular manufacturer or industry group. We are beholden to no corporate interests.国际磁浮协会(IMB)是一个研究磁浮科技的国际非营利组织。由国际著名的交通运输科学家、工程师、专家暨市民代表协会成员所组成,是个独立且具科学性的协会,并非服膺于特定制造商或企业公司。国际磁浮协会并不是任何利益团体的代表,而是受到欧盟肯定的公益(非营利)组织。
Maglev technologies are not wonderful sweeping innovations that will provide a quick solution for all the mobility problems of the world. However, in specific cases, maglev trains can certainly contribute to the organization of more efficient mobility. This aspect should be tested in individual cases, for specific projects, i.e., in a comparison with wheel/rail and air traffic, and should be objective and fact-based, without technical prejudice or bias.磁浮科技并非是万能的技术,无法解决世界上所有的交通运输问题。然而,在特定情形下,它对打造出高效率的交通有极显著的贡献。比起轮轨运输、空中运输,磁浮科技的潜在可行性,在个别情境或特殊的项目上,必须接受更严谨且更专业的测试。同时,这些研究测试应建立在客观的论据上,摒除对科技及意识型态上的偏见。
Maglev supporters call for a fact-based examination and project-based evaluation of maglev systems in concrete individual cases – further, in a fair, scientifically based comparison with conventional wheel-on-rail and/or aircraft systems. Maglev should be promoted in places and situations where its use is meaningful, based on an objective weighing of the facts. Especially important evaluation criteria for all systems are their long-term economic effects and life-cycle costs.磁浮支持者认为磁浮系统的检测应以数据为基础,每一次独立的检测都是以项目评估进行,以科学性的论证,公平地与轮轨系统及飞机进行比较分析。任何技术所制造出的磁浮列车,其应用性应该是在客观的角度下而被证实是具有意义的。在实证的评鉴标准项目中,最重要的是磁浮技术长期上对国民经济与社会之影响,以及磁浮列车的生命周期成本。
The purpose of this Charta is to call for maglev systems to be included – objectively and fairly – in any and all long-range infrastructure planning and planning competitions.我们呼吁,在未来所有相关的交通建设之规划竞标及评估,皆应公开、公正且深具意义的将磁浮技术考虑在内。

Chapter 1 Maglev can make rapid transit more energy efficient and environmentally friendly.磁浮能实现环保与节能的交通运载
Chapter 2 Maglev can replace short-distance air traffic with attractive travel times.以更具吸引力的旅行时间取代短程空中交通
Chapter 3 Intercity mobility will become more economical with maglev.实现效率更高的城际交通
Chapter 4 Maglev can achieve very high levels of safety and comfort.达到安全与舒适的最高水平
Chapter 5 Maglev guideway construction is becoming more and more economical.越来越低廉的磁浮建造费用
Chapter 6 Maglev uses separate routes and avoids slower transport.隔离高速和低速交通道路
Chapter 7 Maglev test installations are a prerequisite for success.测试设施是成功创新的前提
Chapter 8 Maglev provides national economic and social benefits.长期的社会收益取代短期的回收增值
Chapter 9 Maglev systems are future-oriented, innovative and important.磁浮是具未来性、创新的重要系统


Chapter 1 Maglev can make rapid transit more energy efficient and environmentally friendly.磁浮能实现环保与节能的交通运载
Maglev transportation systems are designed to be highly energy efficient. In a direct comparison, high-speed maglev systems are more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than air traffic. Certainly, transport and mobility will always consume energy and resources, but some maglev systems already today offer considerable advantages in this area. In addition, maglev trains do not create direct pollution emissions and are always quieter in comparison to traditional systems when operating at the same speeds.
In high-speed intercity transport, using maglev trains can offer an especially good cost-benefit ratio as regards land purchase, construction, operation, maintenance and environmental protection. Future technological advances can be expected to improve this ratio even more.
In the area of noise emissions, maglev trains are superior in every way to wheel/rail systems, not to mention airplanes. Comparisons made at the same speed show that all rolling friction noises, every track screech, all shocks from wheel-on-rail contact are eliminated in maglev systems that use magnetic forces rather than physical contact to keep the vehicle upright. Noise generated by air turbulence is also greatly reduced with maglev high-speed trains, making them clearly superior to all wheel/rail vehicles. In particular, the noise from the conventional train’s pantograph is replaced in maglev by a process of induction and the required energy is transferred without physical contact.
At speeds under 200 km/h (125 mph), maglev systems can hardly be heard, especially in an urban environment – an important advantage for settled areas. The Chinese Transrapid in Shanghai, the Japanese Linimo in Nagoya, the Ecobee Rotem in South Korea, all are city transport maglev trains, offer impressive proof of this.
In some maglev systems, the drive mechanism lies in the guideway, so it doesn’t have to be carried in the vehicle. This is a radical departure from traditional transport systems of every other type. In addition, with maglev trains, propulsion power only needs to be provided for short stretches as the vehicle passes through an active propulsion section.
Maglev routes also do not “divide the landscape” as highways, train tracks and waterways typically do. Animals can cross under elevated maglev guideways, which they do without hesitation, and farmers can till the land undisturbed, as shown by observation and experience at the test facilities in Japan’s Yamanshi Prefecture and Germany’s Emsland town of Lathen.
There is a strong demand to design future rail route architecture more aesthetically and open, in contrast to the massive constructions of the past. This public concern will affect maglev trains as well as wheel/rail systems.
交通和运载向来需要能源及资源。相较于其他的交通系统,尤其是与高速的交通工具–飞机比较,显而易见地,磁浮列车更具环保性,且更有效地节省能源。此外,磁浮列车在行驶中不会直接排放废气,比起马达运作的交通工具更安静。磁浮列车在运作和保养上,被认为是能创造收益大于成本的交通系统,而未来持续深化的技术,则预期更能持续提高成本效益比率。原则上磁浮系统在声发射上比所有轮轨系统更有竞争性。磁悬浮不会产生滚轮摩擦的声音,因此在磁浮轨道上不会出现一般火车发出的刺耳摩擦声。另外,因空气尾流而产生的噪音,磁浮快速列车比起轮轨交通工具更不会有这样的问题,尤其是磁浮排除了轮轨系统集电器所产生的噪音,因为它所需的能源是采无接触式的电磁感应传导。相较于同样速度的轮轨系统,磁浮快速列车在时速200公里以下则几乎听不到声音–这对住宅区与城市之间的交通往返有极大优势。上海市磁浮列车示范运营线(Transrapid Shanghai)和日本的东部丘陵线(Linimo)是城市磁浮交通线,两者皆有力地证实了前述的优点。磁浮轨道也比高速公路、铁路和水路更不会造成生态隔离效应,动物们可以在架高的磁浮轨道下不受影响地穿越迁徙。未来如何将轨道建筑在整体上打造得更细致化并符合美学,是磁浮与轮轨系统共同的需求。


Chapter 2 Maglev can replace short-distance air traffic with attractive travel times.以更具吸引力的旅行时间取代短程空中交通
Maglev’s demonstrated ability to rapidly accelerate and decelerate, maintain a high travel speed and to follow flexible routes can lead to especially short total travel times and relatively simple access to city centers. Considering intercity travel times for distances of about 1,000 kilometers/600+ miles, maglev trains clearly outclass all other transport systems. The result is that air transport can be replaced attractively by maglev trains for short and medium distances. At the same time, high schedule frequency is possible, which also improves travel flexibility for customers.
Maglev systems can surpass the basic advantage of air traffic ?fast point-to-point connections between major cities ? and improve the connections between mid-sized cities with its simplified boarding procedures and reduced waiting times. And, as a rule, they can do this faster, more flexibly and more efficiently than would ever be possible with conventional wheel/rail systems.
Maglev’s main significance is as a direct connection between major cities, major airports and mega-cities.
在1000公里以内的城际交通中,磁浮所需时间明显短于其他交通系统:磁浮快速列车能以显著的优势替代中短程空中交通。强劲的加速性能,持久的高速巡航能力,以及灵活的轨道线路而能便捷抵达城市中心的特点,让磁浮快车能够大大缩短旅行时间。同时,高频率的车次也让乘客更能弹性地安排旅程。磁浮快速列车能够超越空中交通的优点,例如大城市之间点对点的快速连接,同时也能改善中等城市的转运连接 – 一般情况下,磁浮比起传统的轮轨铁路系统更能快速、弹性、驱动效率更高的达成这些需求。浮快速列车成为大都会、城市与大型机场的交通连接首选是明智的选择。


Chapter 3 Intercity mobility will become more economical with maglev.实现效率更高的城际交通
Maglev systems can operate at very high speeds almost without deterioration and are therefore more economical to operate than wheel/rail rapid transit systems that require regular intensive maintenance and experience exponentially increasing erosion with increasing speed. The fundamental freedom from mechanical erosion is one of the main advantages of maglev high-speed systems.
Maglev is the only trackbound transport system that has practically no mechanical friction during operation. In maglev, all the weight, propulsion and lateral guidance forces of the vehicle are transferred contact-free to the guideway, including the braking forces. As a result, maintenance costs are only a fraction of the costs of traditional wheel/rail systems.
In traditional wheel/rail operations, the wheels eventually wear out. For example, each InterCity Express (ICE) train wheel alone loses about 68 kg/150 lb of steel through friction from driving and braking before it is withdrawn from service, usually after two or three years (an entire ICE train loses about 8 metric tons/17,600 pounds). In addition, the resultant grit on the running surface of the tracks causes abrasion of the railheads.
磁浮快速列车在时速600公里行驶上也几乎毫无磨损,因此与保养维修费用高昂的轮轨快速交通系统相比之下,磁浮显然在营运上费用较低廉。轮轨系统在加速的同时也伴随着越来越高的磨耗。一般而言,轮轨系统在行驶上只有维持在时速200或250公里才具有经济济效益,时速超过250公里虽然看似令人赞叹,相对的确也产生出可观的营运费用。然而,高速交通下产生的高昂保养花费在经济评估上不是被忽略就是大大被低估。相反的,时速250公里对磁浮快速列车来说仅是速度性能的低门坎。无磨耗与更低廉的维修花费都是磁浮重要的优势之一。在行驶上几乎不会产生机械磨耗的就只有磁浮交通系统。磁浮会将所有的行驶负荷量、动力,包括驱动力和剎车力皆转嫁到轨道。其结果是,磁浮维修花费仅是轮轨系统高昂的维修费一小部分。在传统的轮轨铁路营运中,例如一节完整的德国ICE车厢约重达8公吨,因为与铁轨的摩擦,其车轮在行驶、磨擦和剎车时就会耗去车轮约66公斤的钢,两到三年后就需汰换轮子。日本的MLX磁浮列车现今仍有使用车轮用以支撑发动 – 然而这套磁浮系统已经全程皆采悬浮方式行驶,以符合零磨耗。日本的磁浮Linimo以及南韩的仁川机场磁浮线(昵称Ecobee)皆是城市型磁浮列车,无论是高速或低速行驶全程皆采磁悬方式,以合乎营运优势。


Chapter 4 Maglev can achieve very high levels of safety and comfort.达到安全与舒适的最高水平
In the areas of travel comfort and safety, maglev trains clearly exceed other rapid transit rail systems. The design of the guideway-- whether the German “T” shape for the wrap-around vehicle or the Japanese “U” shape with the vehicle enclosed -- ensures that the trains are safe from derailment. Today, maglev trains are generally considered to be among the most safe and comfortable rapid transit systems in the world.
The amount of space available inside maglev cars is generous compared to the relatively narrow proportions of many established train cars. For example, a German Transrapid interior is nearly a meter wider than conventional rail cars, which makes for more spatial freedom, a wider range of seating options and contributes to a higher overall comfort level. The levitation of the vehicle using magnetic forces ensures a quiet and smooth ride, even at the highest speeds, whereas wheel-on-rail systems sometimes struggle with this even at the lowest speeds. The Japanese Linimo as well as the South Korean Rotem “urban maglevs” can substantiate this claim for quiet, comfortable travel in city transport applications.
Even with regard to earthquakes, maglev trains are considered to be very secure rapid transit systems, something exemplified by the Japanese superconducting maglev system, the “Chuo Shinkansen.”


Chapter 5 Maglev guideway construction is becoming more and more economical.越来越低廉的磁浮建造费用
Through the technological developments of recent years, the infrastructure construction costs for high-speed maglev trains have converged to the same levels as those of traditional wheel/rail systems. Furthermore, there is a potential for further cost reduction. For topographically demanding routes, maglev trains already offer clear advantages in the cost of infrastructure construction.
Maglev systems can manage ascending grades of 10% and more, while traditional railroads are limited to grades on the order of 4%. Maglev trains adapt more easily to the landscape and therefore require fewer tunnels. This offers enormous cost savings in infrastructure construction, particularly in hilly landscapes.
New manufacturing processes in track construction, for example, the spun concrete construction technique and other modular production concepts, make it possible to reduce the costs of mass production considerably. In hilly landscapes, maglev guideways on pier foundations -- spaced tens of meters apart -- are considerably more economical than the massive, expensive embankments and causeways usually required for the entire length for most wheel/rail systems.
Maglev guideways can avoid obstacles without special additional bridge constructions. At-grade crossings with other traffic routes are eliminated and, therefore, collisions are rendered impossible. In the case of elevated track, alternative uses of the land under the track are still possible.


Chapter 6 Maglev uses separate routes and avoids slower transport.隔离高速和低速交通道路
High-speed ground transport can only be safe and efficient when it is completely separated from slower systems. The autonomy of a maglev train running on its own infrastructure is hence an important system advantage that makes overall safety, efficiency and punctuality possible in high-speed maglev operations.
The demand for compatibility or interoperability of high-speed rail transport with the operation of slower rail transport is based on traditional wheel/rail planning and is no longer meaningful in this form. today. Vehicles with extremely different speeds on the same traffic path create a mutual hindrance and introduce mutual safety concerns. Safety clearances and time needs must therefore increase. Mixing slow transport with high-speed transport is clearly not advantageous economically for either system. This is equally true for all transport systems: bicycles on a freeway would be just as senseless as auto racing on cycling paths.
Combining rapid and slow transport systems creates a mutual hindrance and lowers the performance of the entire system. The operation of high-speed passenger trains should therefore be separated from freight trains and slower passenger transport. The Japanese Shinkansen train network has been completely separated from slower wheel/rail transport since 1964 and has operated fatality-free with incredible efficiency ever since.
The longer high speed running can be maintained, the better the performance will be, along with the cost effectiveness of the respective system. In this regard, maglev trains have the principle advantage through their independent routes and the automatic exclusion of mixed traffic.


Chapter 7 Maglev test installations are a prerequisite for success.测试设施是成功创新的前提
Test installations are a prerequisite for the further development of maglev systems and technology innovations. Special importance is accorded to the testing installations in Japan’s Yamanashi site and Germany’s Emsland facility as sites for concrete maglev projects. Here the special layout of the lines and specifications can be simulated and optimized for implementation in projects in far distant areas. The implementation timeframes for worldwide projects can be shortened considerably – sometimes by years – through pilot tests.
Maglev system infrastructure can be developed faster and more economically when any problems that might occur during a realization project can be simulated on a full-scale test track beforehand. The optimization of operational requirements and rail bed parameters then takes place beforehand and not as a reaction to problems that arise, as is usually the case in wheel/rail projects.
In high-speed maglev transport as well as in regional or urban maglev transport, continuously active experimental and test routes are of considerable importance as tools for the realization and further development of transport projects and innovations.


Chapter 8 Maglev provides national economic and social benefits.长期的社会收益取代短期的回收增值
Wheel/rail vehicle manufacturers are naturally interested in the highest possible earnings from maintenance and upkeep. From a national economic point of view, in contrast, the least possible expenditure for maintenance and repair of mechanical parts is more desirable. Low maintenance costs make an essential contribution to economical mobility. For maglev systems, which are always levitated, even at the highest speeds, and do not make contact with their guideways, low maintenance costs are typical. In this sense, using maglev systems are advantageous from an economic point of view.
For wheel/rail manufacturers and companies, the unavoidable wear and tear involved in a wheel/rail system is a very interesting effect from an entrepreneurial viewpoint: it’s an effect that guarantees consistent high turnover, or sales. Infrastructure elements and vehicles must be kept in running order with replacement parts and intensive maintenance, so the higher the driving speed, the higher the abrasion from wheel-rail contact – and also the higher the profits. It is a truism that vehicle manufacturers achieve higher profits in the rapid-transit sector from maintenance than from the sale of vehicles.
Maglev systems are practically abrasion-free in operation and therefore offer relatively low expenditures for maintenance. They are also especially economical to operate. Companies that base their sales projections on maintenance, repairs and replacement parts sense one of the main advantages of the maglev train system -- low maintenance -- as an economic threat to their business and have been known to block the discussion on the use of maglev trains. From the viewpoint of an individual company, such a perspective is certainly understandable. However, from a general social and future-oriented viewpoint, such obstructions are economically questionable, if not actually damaging.
For all transport infrastructure projects, it is of fundamental importance that long-term social orientation increases and the corresponding objective cost-benefit comparisons are made as the basis of future decisions rather than the short-term profit motives of the established wheel/rail manufacturing sector. Transport infrastructures affect living spaces for many decades afterwards; future generations will carry the social and financial burden of the today’s decisions made to build relatively inefficient and uneconomical structures.
Even when projects in transport infrastructure continue to be tested on a case-by-case basis to decide which technology should be put to use, maglev systems can often offer a qualitatively superior solution when subjected to an objective cost-benefit comparison.


Chapter 9 Maglev systems are future-oriented, innovative and important.磁浮是具未来性、创新的重要系统
Maglev trains are important transport systems for the future perspectives of regions, nations and states. They can create important location advantages.
Maglev systems represent a revolutionary transport innovation. At the same time, they can also function as a technology development platform. (e.g., superconductors, new materials). They can, in certain cases, bring positive economic benefits through the optimization of spatial networking, travel time reduction and resource efficiency. A meaningful use of the technology also brings collective social advantages as well as a good image and prestige. The city of Shanghai, China, where Transrapid has been in use since 2003 for high-speed airport-to-downtown transport, uses these advantages intensively and markets them aggressively.
Each maglev system has its own advantages that can be applied for different uses, e.g., in high-speed passenger and freight transport or as a local urban commuter system.
The German Transrapid and the Japanese Superconducting Maglev are two of the leading maglev systems in high-speed ground transport. The Transrapid in Shanghai has been in successful commercial use since 2003 and the Chinese Dolphin, based on the Transrapid system, likewise targets the high-speed segment.
The Japanese Linimo and the Korean Rotem Maglev (Ecobee) are both used for rapid but lower-speed urban transit.

[原创] 乘磁悬浮Linimo领略爱知世博的睿智(10P) [原创] 磁石引针张家界 浮岚暖翠武陵源 (28P)
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